The generation of electricity from renewable energy sources has become an intensively developing trend in the last 20 years. This was made possible due to two reasons:
Reducing the cost of equipment for solar and wind power plants, as well as installations that generate electricity when burning biofuels.
Stimulating the development of the industry by the state through the purchase of clean electricity at a green rate.
At the end of 2008, the “green tariff” was adopted in our country. Therefore, since 2009, alternative energy in Ukraine began to develop intensively.
WHAT IS GREEN TARIFF
Despite a noticeable decline in the cost of equipment for renewable energy, with current electricity tariffs, its payback was catastrophically low. In order to stimulate the development of the industry, many governments have introduced a green tariff. According to it, electricity generated from renewable sources is purchased by the state at tariffs an order of magnitude higher than the market value per 1 kW of electricity.
This tariff will be valid for a certain period, and at the end of it, the cost of green electricity will become standard. In Ukraine, such a program is designed until 2030 with a phased decrease in the cost of 1 kW, for the generation of which alternative sources of electrical energy were used. This time is enough for all the constructed power plants of a private and commercial nature to pay off and begin to bring income to their owners.
Renewable energy in Ukraine has received more development in the direction of the development of solar energy. There are optimal conditions for efficient operation of solar panels, guaranteeing a high conversion rate of sunlight into electricity. These are the most appropriate alternative energy sources for private homes and apartments, since the panels are easy to install, and only sunlight is required for their work.
Wind power generators should be located at a high level, where there is always movement of air masses. Therefore, they are used to work in conditions of high-power wind power stations.
With the adoption of the green tariff and the emergence of the opportunity to connect to it private stations with a capacity of up to 30 kW, alternative energy for the house and the dacha has become topical. Part of the electricity produced is used for personal needs, and the surplus is transferred to the general network. This makes the house non-volatile and allows you to recoup the purchased equipment.
PROBLEMS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
As mentioned above, the promotion of alternative energy comes at the expense of state support. However, there are already the first problems, justified by the economic difficulties associated with the green tariff. Spain is one of the leading European countries in the field of alternative energy, but in 2013-2014 the conditions of state support were changed, and the cost of purchasing clean electricity declined significantly. This happened as a result of an increase in the production of alternative energy and, accordingly, an increase in the financial burden on the country's budget. As a result, the development of this industry has slowed down, as investors have lost their guarantees. The same will happen in Ukraine if the state that promised favorable green tariff conditions for all who decided to buy alternative energy sources cannot fulfill its obligations. Reducing the cost of buying 1 kW of environmentally friendly electricity will lead to the fact that alternative electricity will become irrelevant, and as a result, this industry may even stop to develop.
Based on the above, it follows that today the Ukrainian government should find and implement new methods to stimulate the development of the industry in the event of the lack of economic opportunity to support the green tariff program. This is the only way to attract new investors in this industry, which already lags behind other European countries in terms of production.
Today, the highest rates of solar and wind power generation are in Latvia, Finland, Sweden and Austria. Renewable energy sources in Ukraine currently occupy the last place in terms of the volume of electricity generated, compared with nuclear and thermal power plants. But the development process goes, in particular:
solar and wind power stations are put into operation;
on the territory of Ukraine, the production of equipment for renewable energy is developing (these are transformers, metal structures for photovoltaic modules, towers for wind generators);
Domestic-made solar panels appeared on the market, having a lower cost compared to their foreign counterparts.
In this regard, the cost of generating 1 kW of renewable electricity in the period 2015-2017 decreased by 20%. However, it is not known whether the cost of equipment will decrease in the future, since it depends on many external factors. Therefore, you should not make a bet on this, but it is necessary to find new methods of support so that alternative sources of energy in Ukraine would be attractive in the eyes of potential investors further.