Cogeneration is process of simultaneous production of electric and thermal energy from fuel energy. To implement this process, a cogeneration unit is used that uses fuels in two directions - producing heat and electricity with a high efficiency factor.
Compared to standard power plants, cogeneration units have an undeniable advantage and are considered to be the most efficient. What is the fundamental difference between standard power plants and cogeneration units?
In standard (typical) power plants turbogenerators are used, in which the output is low-temperature heat - warm water with a temperature of 30 ° С ÷ 40 ° С. It is very difficult to find application for this secondary heat, therefore water is fed to the cooling tower. There is a process of cooling the secondary water and in fact - the thermal energy in this case evaporates into the environment. Therefore, classical power plants have a maximum efficiency of up to 30%.
In the cogeneration units at the outlet of the cooling circuit of the engine, we have high-temperature heat - hot water with a temperature of 93⁰С ÷ 95⁰С. In this case, there is a technical opportunity to use secondary heat. The spectrum of application of high-temperature heat is quite wide:
Heating of municipal buildings, industrial objects, private farms, livestock complexes, farms.
Heating of greenhouses.
Receiving, serving in the building and other objects of hot water.
Getting a secondary cold (in this case, the installation will be called triggering).
In cogeneration units, the total efficiency can reach 95% (42% - efficiency of electricity generation, 43% - efficiency of thermal energy generation). For this reason, the use of cogeneration units is rational and economically justified. It is also worth noting that cogeneration units have a very wide range of single electric power - from 50 kW to 2 MW. This versatility provides the technical feasibility of using cogeneration units for small companies and farms, as well as for large companies.
Equipment is selected in the same way as standard electric generators. A rational choice is based on the total capacity of all indoor and outdoor equipment + 20% of the reserve. Depending on the power, the amount of heat generated by the system varies.
However, the customer should take into account that modern cogeneration equipment - a complex high-tech device, which includes a huge set of technical characteristics. To control the operation of a modern cogeneration unit in automatic, semi-automatic or manual mode, various electronic control systems and diagnostics are used - with the corresponding set of software and visualization of the technological process.
Therefore, in accordance with the tasks of the Customer, it is necessary to carry out thorough selection of equipment in accordance with the necessary technical parameters (capacity, amount of electric energy to be produced, amount of heat energy to be produced), and according to the type of input fuel to be used and availability of the appropriate installation control system.
If you prefer cogeneration, you can ask for the help of selecting the cogeneration units for profile specialists of the company Vital. In the shortest possible terms, they will perform all necessary calculations and make a selection that will fit the equipment - ask questions to our specialists.
Cogeneration units: the principle of operation, varieties
The cogeneration station in the classical design is composed of:
systems of heat storage and transfer.
The main feature of which cogeneration units are classified is the type of primary engine used. At present, most manufacturers offer the following engine variants:
Piston engines differ in a gradual set of revolutions, therefore, show lower, but stable power indices. Microturbine engines are designed for small power.
The work of gas turbine engines is based on the work of the gas turbine which is implemented in the system. Therefore, devices of this kind are often used in industrial conditions to meet the energy needs of large areas (application is rational at a total cost of capacity from 6 MW or more).
Field of application
The power generated by the cogeneration system can be directed to the own needs of the building or for consumption in the general network.
The resulting heat is used for heating through radiators or for heating water supplied for household or technical purposes.
At the same time, cogeneration units are actively used as a source of emergency supply of heat or electricity. This is relevant during power crashes.
Since some devices provide an absorption type cooler, the heat that occurs during the cogeneration process is often used to extract cold. It can be sent to air conditioning premises or applied for technological purposes. Such systems are called triggers because they generate heat, cold and electricity simultaneously.
Features of operation
Cogeneration unit for natural gas is one of the most commonly used alternatives in our country. However, in addition to natural gas, other alternative sources of gaseous fuels (butane, propane) can be used. Most of the equipment presented on the market can be configured from one gas fuel to another.
It is possible to use raw materials with medium or low thermal conductivity. Almost any cogeneration plant for solid fuels can work from wood, coke, oil, pyrolysis gas.
Installation of equipment must be carried out in a separate room or in a protective enclosure adjacent to the building. When installed on the street, the weather conditions prevailing in the region should be taken into account. For a separate room you need:
Pre-match the dimensions of the room and the dimensions of the device;
to design ways and methods of heat removal;
provide adequate ventilation indoors.
Each device is accompanied by a passport with specifications and nominal capacity. Depending on the manufacturer, the operating conditions and features of the control of the equipment are different.
Advantages of cogeneration units
Cogeneration in Ukraine is rapidly gaining popularity among private and commercial consumers. Cogeneration units can drastically reduce capital expenditures for electricity and heating. They pay back themselves in 3-4 years of continuous operation. In fact, cogeneration units can be considered as an analogue of a stationary power plant. Unlike solar and wind power plants, the generation of electric and thermal energy occurs in cogeneration units.
constantly at round-the-clock mode - regardless of the time of day, season and temperature of the environment.
Also noted is the universality of use, because if the cogeneration units of low power are designed for operation in private conditions, powerful equipment can be used by large power plants to provide heat and electricity to a certain number of buildings. Stations easily fit into any circuit of private consumers or any number of users through the state network, as well as:
have compact dimensions;
Due to the options of the settings, the exact dosage of heat, energy is provided;
allowed in city conditions.
Cogeneration units in biogas or other available fuels are capable of substantially discharging electrical networks, excluding power and / or heating currents. In addition, virtually all types of equipment are designed with the ability to connect new customers.
If the Customer has a technical opportunity to obtain biogas, he plans to install and connect the cogeneration unit, in accordance with the Law of Ukraine "On Electricity", he as the subject of alternative energy has the right to issue a Green Tariff. This will allow the sale of electricity produced by the Energorynok subsidiary under the "Green" tariff.
In this case, Vital company is ready not only to perform all works on the selection, delivery and installation of a turnkey cogeneration unit, but also, on behalf of the Client, to provide full technical support, documentation and obtain a "green" tariff, namely:
Registration of the license of the electric power producer at the NERCPEC (National Commission for Energy Regulation and Utilities);
Registration of membership in the WEM (Wholesale Electricity Market);
Receipt of "Green" tariff in NKREKP;
Registration of ASKOE (Automated Commercial Accounting System) at SE "Energorynok";
Launch of ASECA for testing operation;
Launch of ASKOE for industrial exploitation;
Registration of the Contract for the sale of electricity from SE "Energorynok".
Our company works in the Ukrainian market for more than 12 years, offering complex solutions: from selection to delivery and service of equipment. The accumulated experience allows our specialists to successfully perform any tasks posed by the Customer, precisely and in a timely manner. Welcome is the exclusive distributor of Green Power (Italy). Along with the implementation of comprehensive solutions, we offer the customer complete service maintenance of electrical equipment with the use of only original spare parts and components. In the selection of cogeneration units and diesel stations you can entrust us a project of any scale - from a private house to a factory!